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VOLUME 3,  2003

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement

Kariya K., Takayama S.:
Expansion of Measurement Education from Engineering to Science
Abstract: Measurement has two faces. The one is “Engineering face” and the other one is “Science face”. The engineering face is well known as “Measurement Engineering” of each field. But the science face which contributes to not only all scientific fields and all engineering or technical fields but also our human life and human society does not enough known. This paper was written as a purpose to be recognized a fact that an act of measurement is the fundamental and important operation on all Learning's and all Human Activities. “Measurement Science” is a Learning  to most fit in study of the fact and “Measurement Science” should be completed as a fundamental science on the education viewpoints. 


Sydenham P.:
Methodology for Integration of Evaluation Systems in the Engineering of Large Systems
Abstract: Test and evaluation is always present in major systems development in some form or other; it is the mechanism for establishing if the final design satisfies the need of the customer. The traditional process is based on a largely unaccountable and non-inheritable procedure in which localised professionalism within the various parts of the design and manufacture organises tests. The principles of a much-improved test and evaluation process are outlined. They provide a sound foundation for setting up a cost-efficient test programs for projects.


Woschni E.G.:
Minimisation of Measurement Errors and Optimisation with Correcting Procedures
Abstract: At first it is shown how measuring errors – both dynamic and statistical ones – are depending of correcting procedures today realised without additional hardware using instrument computers. This leads to the well-known classical optimal filters with minimal total errors. Then the limitations due to parameter variations as well as to systems containing all passes were discussed. In the second part another optimal criterion given by the information theory is used leading to new filters: The information flow should be a maximum. Now the optimum is shifted to higher values of the degree of correction than in the first case.


Osanna P.H.:
Dimensional Measurements in the Nanometric Range
Abstract: Since about 1982 new high resolution and high precision measurement methods have been developed whereas these methods can be used especially for the evaluation of surface topography in the nanometric range. Results of a series of experiments are analysed and discussed. General conclusions can be drawn as very often obtained scanning images looking like “atoms” topography structure have been misunderstood, because it is very difficult to interpret correctly and properly so many kinds of SPM artefacts in the imaging practice applications.


Krakovská A.:
Noise Reduction Based on Dynamics Reconstruction
Abstract: A new technique of noise reduction in time series is presented. First, the data are embedded into higher dimensional state space. Then, the dynamics of the system is approximated and data are adjusted to satisfy better the approximations to the dynamics. It leads to noise reduction which is more effective than traditional filtering, especially for complex time series.


Siraya T.N.:
Comparison of Uncertainty Estimates: Allan Variance and Sample Variance
Abstract: General scheme for estimation of errors and uncertainties is presented and discussed. Allan variance as an important characteristic of data scatter is compared with classic sample variance. Two approaches are outlined for investigation of Allan variance versus sample variance. The first one is based on the testing of statistical hypotheses, the second one is based on the functional representations of time series.


Janiga I., Miklóš R.:
Statistical Tolerance Intervals for a Normal Distribution
Abstract:  Theory underlying statistical tolerance intervals for a normal distribution with unknown standard deviation.


Witkovský V., Wimmer G.:
On Statistical Models for Consensus Values
Abstract: We consider the problem of measurements made by several laboratories (or methods) on virtually the same object of interest. In general, the number of measurements made at each laboratory may differ. Moreover, the laboratories may exhibit the between-laboratory variability caused by the systematic error due to each laboratory, well as different within-laboratory variances caused by different within-laboratory precision of the used measurement method. In this paper we try to describe statistical models and methods that are appropriate for derivation of the consensus mean of the unknown (measured) value as well as related problems concerning the statistical inference on the unknown value. 


Rublík F.:
On Performance of Multiple Comparison Methods Used in Conjunction with the Kruskal-Wallis Test
Abstract:  It is shown that the best choice of the multiple comparison method is the exact one and that the Conover method possesses a high risk because it overvalues divergences between populations ranks. The results of simulations show that in the balanced case the asymptotic approximation of the exact critical constant is good even for small joint sample sizes.


Kureková E.:
Measurement Process Capability - Trends and Approaches
Abstract: A measurement control system ensures that measuring equipment and measurement processes are fit for their intended use and its important in achieving product quality objectives. The following paper introduces theoretical foundations for determination of the measuring process capability. Defines three capability indexes in short and recommended use of the Cpm index. 


Janiga I., Miklóš R., Palenčár R.:
Computation of Type a Uncertainty from the Normally Distributed Order Statistics
Abstract: Metrological characteristics of a measurement instrument to be used in any statistical process control  must be found out and regularly verified. Uncertainties of the maximum deviation between a measured value on the measuring instrument and a value on the etalon, which are expressed as order statistics, are important. The type A uncertainty of the normally distributed order statistic can be expressed through the standard normal order statistic, the evaluation of which is given in the paper. 


Ptak P., Kurkowski M., Biernacki Z., Zloto T.:
Digital Measuring System for Recording Deformed Functions
Abstract: The  paper  deals  with  the  application  of  DasyLab  software  package  for  measuring voltage and current in circuits with non-sinusoidal waveforms. The presented procedure may be used for constructing complex measuring systems and control systems.


Holcer R., Michaeli L., Šaliga J.:
The Test of the AD Converters Embedded on Two Microcontrollers
Abstract: Testing method of ADC’s implemented on microcontroller chips are described in the paper. The achieved results for microcontroller AT90S8535 and ADuC812 are discussed too. As a criterion of ADC precision, which allows to determine the operational condition limits, the number of effective bits has been chosen. More over, the DNL and INL measured characteristics are presented. The results are compared to some of the data brought out in vendors’ data sheets.  


Ondrášová I., Smieško V., Setnička V.:
Contribution to Efficiency of GPIB Instrumentation
Abstract: The article deals with some aspects of evaluation of GPIB (IEEE488) systems performance. Several ways how to increase the system performance are discussed. An example of design of a measurement system used in technical diagnostics is given. Two possible approaches are presented.


Bartkovjak J., Karovičová M.:
Approximation by Rational Functions
Abstract: The paper deals with analytical functions or experimental measured dependencies approximation by rational functions which is useful in the nonlinear analog function block design, the approximation of inverse functions and calculation of the transfer function parameters from measured data of the amplitude frequency characteristic.


Vedral J., Holub J.:
Oscilloscope Testing by Means of Stochastic Signal

Abstract: A new type of test signal for ADC testing has been introduced. Its practical applicability has been proven for ADC of digitizing oscilloscope HP 54645D. The results are comparable to the ones obtained by standard tests. The future field of future interest will be a frequency point of view. In current state of work, “wide-band” results (ENOB) are obtained. Even it corresponds to many practical applications of ADCs, such “wide-band” description is officially stated nor in IEEE-STD-1241 nor in other similar standards.



Halámek J., Viščor I., Kasal M.:
Dynamic Range and Acquisition System
Abstract: The limitation of the dynamic range given by noise and spurious signals is discussed. Attention is paid to the proper unit [dBFS/ Hz] in the case of noise limitation. On the example of the acquisition system it is presented how to determine the limiting part of the system.



Domańska A.:
A-D Conversion with Dither Signal-Possibilities and Limitations
Abstract: AD conversion with dither signal may have the following aims: to improve reconstruction (for the purposes of quantization), to reduce non-linear distortion, to produce increased resolution of the operation of quantization, and to reduce the non-linearity errors of an actual analog-to-digital converter (ADC). These advantages are achieved at the price of limiting a number of characteristics of AD conversion systems which apply dither. There is also a relationship between the nature of the non-linearity of a function and the efficiency of its reduction by means of the application of dither. The paper discusses the mechanism of the impact of AD conversion with dither signal on the characteristics of the operation of quantization and on certain properties of an actual ADC.



Nalepa J.:
The"Blind" Dynamic Error Correction Method - Simulation Study for the First-order Measurement Channel
Abstract: Paper presents introductory results of simulations for a selected method of dynamical error correction without prior knowledge of properties of measurement channel. This task can be accomplished using a measurement system having two twin channels which measure the same input value. This correction method can be names - the .blind. method. In presented researches the measurement channel was modeled as inertial first order dynamic object. The results of the study presented in the paper confirmed the possibility of application of the continuous dynamic systems computer simulation as a research method for determining the parameters of the practical realization of the .blind. dynamic error correction method. The results presented do not allow us to determine finally these parameters; they give, however, clear hints for further search, which will be directed to determine the effectiveness of this dynamic error correction method.