MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW                         Volume 6, Section 3                 Main Page

 SECTION 3                           Download and print the front cover  ->>   VOLUME 6, 2006

  Measurement of Physical Quantities

 No. 1




Najjar I. M. R., Alnefaie K. A.:

A New Consideration in the Measurement Uncertainty of Indicators

Abstract: The internal mechanism of conventional contact-gauging instruments, namely mechanical dial and electronic indicators, is a potential source of errors. Tests performed on some high-accuracy indicators revealed systematic effects of spring rate and substantial force variations in both directions. Stick-slip friction forces of bearing and wiper caused additional variations. Analyses of contact confirmed that these force uncertainties can generate contact uncertainties well above the level of concern on common conditions of engineering surfaces. A new consideration in the analyses of the measurement error budget of these instruments is introduced here. The potential errors induced by the complex behaviour of contact between measuring probe tips and engineering surfaces are of concern in this study. These potential errors are usually neglected by researchers.

Keywords: Indicators, measurement error, measurement uncertainty, contact gauging


Kiryanov A. V., Vedernikov V. M., Kiryanov V. P., Kokarev S. A., Nikitin V. G.:

Forming high-precision angular measuring structures by the laser pattern generators with circular scanning

Abstract: Metrological performances of raster scanning technology are analyzed using high-precision angular scales formed by laser pattern generator CLWS-300/C. It is shown that the raster scanning technology allows forming the angular measuring structures with error about +/-1”. Improvement of some auxiliary procedures will make it possible to increase the accuracy of synthesis of structures and decrease the error of topology up to 0,5” – 0,3”.

Keywords: angular scale, raster scanning technology, accumulated errors



Bittera M., Harťanský R.:

EM field measurement aspects for electromagnetic compatibility purposes

Abstract: EM field measurement is just one of many necessary rf measurements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Therefore it is important to know all of possible problems regarding of this process. This paper deals with influence of the field probe to the field distribution and to the final measured results.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, EM field measurement, method of moment


Adamczak S., Janecki D., Stępień K.:

The Comparison of Cylindricity Profiles Using Normalized Cross Correlation Function

Abstract: Nowadays the possibilities of carrying out cylindricity measurements in industrial conditions are s limited. Therefore at the Kielce University of Technology concept of using so-called reference method for cylindricity measurements has been proposed. Proposed concept was the base for building up a model measuring stand for reference cylindricity measurements. The paper presents  the principles of the reference method. It presents also the procedure of comparing cylindricity profiles, which consists in applying the normalized cross-correlation function.

Keywords: cylindricity, measurement, correlation

 No. 2




Vavrda M., Hertl I.:

Automatic Measurement of Small Boxes Shielding Effectiveness

Abstract:  This paper describes a possible solution for automatic shielding effectiveness measurements for small shielding boxes for frequencies from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. The complete measuring system containing electromagnetic field generating and detection parts and control software is presented. The measurement method is generally described and the measured results are demonstrated.

Keywords: Shielding Effectiveness, Shielding Boxes


Višniakov N., Novickij J., Zaveckas V., Kačianauskas R.:

Featured Measurements of Mechanical Properties of Electrotechnical Materials for Pulsed Magnets

Abstract: The measurements of mechanical properties of electrotechnical materials applied in pulsed magnet design are described. Tensile strength, the elongation at break of Cu-Nb micro-composite wire and Zylon filament was measured experimentally and the influence of cyclic cooling and heating on material mechanical properties was investigated. Experimental data was compared with standard static mechanical properties.

Keywords: pulsed magnet, Cu-Nb micro-composite wire, Zylon filament, tensile strength, elongation at break


Borgosz J.:

“Follow Me” - Digital Jitter Measurement Method

Abstract: This paper consists description of research results regarding digital jitter measurements for higher data rates. In previous publications [1][2][3] author has investigated different methods of digital jitter measurements, however they were applicable for data streams with lower clock frequencies. Developed methods and algorithms were optimised for implementation in FPGAs or ASICs. This work consists description of novel digital jitter measurement technique using programmable clock generators with phase shifters. Tests of this method were performed on well-known FPGA chips however may be easily extended to other digital environments. Obtained results are very promising; whole system may by integrated in one chip, measurement accuracy and resolution is pretty good and solution is easily scalable.

Keywords: Jitter, Phase Noise, SDH

 No. 3




Ďuriš S., Palenčár R.:

The Influence of Covariances on the Uncertainty of Temperature Measurement by Resistance Thermometer

Abstract: Results of the measurements shall be presented with the corresponding uncertainties. In accordance with the international accepted documents the covariances should be taken into account if possible. In this paper the standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibrated at the defining fixed points (DFPs) is considered. This thermometer is used for temperature measurement in the range from 0 °C up to 660 °C. Value of temperature is determined in accordance with the International temperature scale 1990 (ITS – 90) by using of inverse reference function. The law of propagation of uncertainties for the interpolation of temperature between the DFPs is applied. In the conclusion is the discussion concerning the influence of covariances caused by the triple point of water (TPW) to the result of measurement, specifically to the evaluation of the uncertainties.

Keywords: Temperature measurement, propagation of uncertainties, covariances, SPRT calibration


Kollár M.:

A New Preprocessing Circuit for ISFET

Abstract: A new circuit for processing signals from ISFET (Ion Sensing Field Effect Transistor) is proposed to allow for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in electrolyte. In comparison to ordinary approaches, a sensing and an reference ISFET are incorporated into a switched flip-flop circuit that has two stable states, namely a “one” and a “zero” state. The principle of measurement consists in the fact that the concentration of hydrogen ions changes the threshold voltage of sensing ISFET and thus breaks the symmetry of the switched flip-flop. This asymmetry is compensated by the voltage introduced to a flip-flop in such a way that the probability of the “one” is equal to probability of the “zero”. This voltage consists of two parts. The first one corresponds to the concentration of hydrogen ions and the second one to mismatches in the elements of the flip-flop. First, the voltage without influence of hydrogen ions is obtained. Then it is subtracted from the voltage obtained by the measurement carried out with presence of hydrogen ions of electrolyte to compensate for these mismatches. In addition, as the voltage is set by using a feedback circuit that processes “ones” and “zeros” from the flip-flop output, the result is obtained directly in the digital form.

Keywords: ISFET, pH sensitivity, switched flip-flop


Ondriš Ľ., Rusina V., Buzási J., Trutz M.

Tsunami earthquake detected in the nuclear power plant            Short Communication

Abstract: The paper informs about rare case of the remote earthquake detection in nuclear power plant Jaslovské Bohunice with nuclear reactor shaft tilt measuring system. It brings a graphical presentation of reactor shaft movements detected on 26.12.2004 together with comment and recommendation to future activity.

Keywords: Tsunami earthquake, hydrostatic sensor, pendametric sensor, nuclear power plant    


Havlíček V.

Accuracy of Power Losses Measurement at AC Magnetization

Abstract: The paper deals with problems of industrial AC measurement of magnetic properties of steel sheets and strips. The single sheet testers and on-line testers accuracy is influenced first by exciting magnetic field homogeneity, magnitude, shape and frequency of waveform, second by the accuracy of conversion of magnetic to electric quantities and third by the electric quantities processing. Classical measurements have been done for the closed specimens but the modern AC measurement should be realized for open steel sheets and strips.  The original Mikulec's compensation method allows measurement of the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The problems of conversion of magnetic to electric quantities can be improved by optimization of the mmf compensation circuit; the third problem improvement gives the digital signal processing of measured variables. The basic ideas in all mentioned areas are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: soft magnetic materials, power losses measurement, MMF compensation method, digital power measurement accuracy, asymmetrical magnetization 

 No. 4




Bogdan M., Mikulczyński T, Nowak D., Więcławek R.

Humidity measurement of loose materials

Abstract: In the paper, a new impulse method of humidity measurement of loose materials is described. The measurement stand and measurement principle are presented. A prototype automated equipment for humidity measurement of loose materials with the impulse method is described. Measurement results for two selected loose materials: copper ore concentrate and moulding sand are included.

Keywords: humidity, measurement, moulding sand, copper ore concentrate


Iaquinta J., Łukianowicz C.

Inferring texture from shadows

Abstract. Fast and robust sensors are often needed to determine surfaces texture in the range of about ten micrometers or so, up to several millimeters. Profiling systems, even able to discriminate between nanometers, cannot guarantee a result representative of a wide area (unless scanning it completely). Other techniques proved to be also static and/or restrained to a strict laboratory environment. A more global approach, taking advantage of the shadow-hiding phenomena observable in the back-scattered radiation field, is therefore suggested. Experiments conducted to validate the measuring principle on surfaces of known roughness are described, and recommendations for an operational set-up are given.

Keywords: Surface texture, light back-scattering, shadow-hiding, global approach.


Syrová L.,  Ravas R., Grman J.

The Use of Frequency Properties of Image in the Classification of Transparent Polymeric Foils

Abstract. The contribution treats the topic of processing the experimentally gained information on the properties of optically transparent polymeric foils. Schlieren optical system was used to examine and visualize refractive index distribution. Frequency approach enables an useful classification of different types of foils into classes. Experimental results are presented as well.

Keywords:  optical visualization, polymeric foil, classification, Fourier transform.


Bogdan M., Fita S., Mikulczyński T., Więcławek R.

Ultrasonic measurements of rheological properties of disintegrated media

Abstract: Applying the ultrasonic method for evaluation of rheological parameters of a disintegrated medium is presented. The measurement stand and principle of ultrasonic measurement is described. Results of ultrasonic measurement and relationships kC = f(d) and kT = f(d) for moulding sand with bentonite Bentomak are included.

Keywords: moulding sand, rheological model, ultrasonic method, measurement

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