MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW              Volume 5, Section 2                            Main Page

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  Measurement in Biomedicine

No. 1



  1 - 10

Durakbasa M. N., Osanna P. H., Samarawickrama D., Krsek A., Afjehi-Sadat A.:

Application of Sophisticated Production Metrology and Nanometrology for Quality Control in Bioengineering

Abstract: Currently biomedical procedures are skill based to a wide extent and clinicians performance in this wide field of science is considerably variable. There are no scientific methods available to the biomedical and dental clinicians for measurement and feedback of the skill-based activities although some limited rules do exist to assist them in learning their procedures. The lack of formal procedures and measurement techniques makes it extremely difficult to develop consistent procedures and results. The subject though has opportunities for broad support by metrology techniques that have been developed initially for engineering applications and will assist the clinicians in characterising biomedical surfaces to assist in their maintenance, modification, optimisation and trauma repair. With the development of robust measurement tools and protocols it will be possible to quantify the appropriate metrology so that it will be possible to provide a quality assurance feedback to the clinicians to assure good practice, functional achievement and long service life of the restoration. To achieve this it is necessary to develop the techniques and protocols and to embody them in effective communication practices and to evaluate the surface components of human bodies whereas this includes teeth, gums, skin, bones, joints, endo prostheses and artificial prostheses parts.

Keywords: Bioengineering, quality assurance, quality control, production metrology, surface evaluation, co-ordinate metrology


 11 - 16

Heiss-Czedik D., Bajla I.:

Using Self-Organizing Maps for Object Classification in Epo Image Analysis

Abstract:  Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hormone that can be misused for doping. The detection of its recombinant form (rEpo) involves analysis of Epo chemiluminescence images containing bands. Within a research project, granted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, we are developing the GASepo software to serve for Epo testing. For detection of the bands we have developed a segmentation procedure. Whereas all true bands are properly segmented, a relatively high number of artifacts are generated. The goal is therefore to separate the artifacts from the bands. In the paper an alternative classification method, based on self-organizing map, is proposed to solve the task of separation. The method performs well, when compared with other classification methods. In addition, it provides valuable insight into the properties of the data, their dependencies and their relevance for the classification task.

Keywords:  Epo doping control, image segmentation, self-organizing map, classification


No. 2



17 - 20

Terado T., Fujiwara O.:

A Method for Monitoring Body Motion in Bed via Luminous Marker Attachments

Abstract:  For the care of people in bed, the assistance or support for their body motion is an essential task. In the absence of helpers or at night, however, preventive measures are being required to avoid sudden accidents such as a fracture of bone due to a fall from a bed or suffocation due to turning over in bed. In this paper, a method was proposed for monitoring three-dimensionally their body motion, which is able to supply 24-hour monitoring with a low cost and high accuracy. Being different from previously developed methods in which a television camera is used to monitor the three dimensional (3D) motion of the body with reflective marker attachments via sequential image processing, this proposed method employs luminous markers and their two-dimensional positioning detectors to determine the 3D coordinates of the markers via a perspective view transformation. Based on the idea, a prototype system was developed, and its measurement accuracy was evaluated for a fixed marker and a repetitive circular motion marker. An application of the system to a subject turning over in bed demonstrated its feasibility for 3D body motion monitoring from the movement tracks of the subject rolling angles and breathing.

Keywords:  Care of people in bed, monitoring the body motion, turning over in bed, breathing movement


21 - 24

Hubka P., Rosík V., Ždiňák J., Tyšler M., Hulín I.:

Independent Component Analysis of Electrogastrographic Signals

Abstract:  Electrogastrogram (EGG) is a non-invasive recording of the electrical activity of the stomach. Dominant component of gastric electrical activity called also slow waves originates from the activity of the network of interstitial cells of Cajal located in the gastric wall. The electrogastrographic signal requires longer recording times (usually tens of minutes) due to the low frequency of the slow waves (0.05 Hz). Furthermore, EGG is weaker signal when compared to the other biogenic signals (ECG, respiratory signal). Thus, EGG is usually contaminated by artifacts and other signals, which are sometimes difficult to remove. In the present study, independent component analysis (ICA), as a method for blind source separation is used for artifact removal and biological signal separation. ICA was applied on 4-channel EGG signal recorded by custom made recording device. Our analysis proves that ICA is able to successfully separate different types of signals (motion artifact, oscillating transients) from the original EGG recordings. We can conclude that ICA could potentially improve further analysis of EGG signal and enhance its interpretation.

Keywords:   Biosignal measurement, electrogastrogram, independent component analysis


No. 3



25 - 28

Juroszek B.:

The Influence of Gas Parameters on the Results of Spirometric Test

Abstract:  The author presents a metrological analysis of the influence of the expiratory gas physical features on the preciseness of the parameters defined during lung tests. Two kinds of spirometric transducers are taken into consideration: a volumetric transducer and a flowmeter. When a volumetric transducer is used, the gas inside changes its temperature and a special correction is necessary, moreover, its value depends on time. When a flowmeter is used the expired gas is measured before its temperature becomes substantially lower and a correction factor shouldn’t be the same as for a volumetric transducer. The problems are theoretically analysed and experimentally confirmed here.

Keywords:   Spirometric transducers, measuring conditions, measuring errors


29 - 32

Lipkova J., Cechak J.:

Human Electromagnetic Emission in the ELF Band

Abstract:  Submitted report is oriented to the area of detection of signals emanated by Man in the ELF - Extremely Low Frequencies range. Designed and applied antenna system suitable for signal reception in the ELF band is presented here. Results of digital signal processing in the ELF band are presented in the report in the graphic form together with the photographic material provided in the course or signal recording. Finally, there is discussion of possibilities of the ELF band signal analysis for detection of men – for example under the snow avalanche, in cave-in in underground mines, etc.

Keywords:   ELF, distance detection, Schumann resonance


33 - 36

Balázs G., Haraszti K., Kozmann Gy.:

Increasing the Efficiency of the Excluding Rules of the Minnesota Coding System using the Fuzzy Logic

Abstract:  A modified Minnesota Coding system was developed, which was 9,3% more efficient when coding the 3-1, 3-2, 6-4-1, 7-1-1, 7-2-1, 7-3, 7-4 rules. The beat-to-beat alteration of the QRS and QT parameters was analysed to examine the utility of fuzzy modification. Beat-to-beat variability showed 4,0 ms average standard deviation for the QRS and 7,9 ms for the QT.

Keywords:   Minnesota Coding system, fuzzy logic, wave parameters, beat-to-beat alteration


No. 4



37 - 40

Titomir L. I., Trunov V. G., Aidu E. A. I., Blinova E. V., Sakhnova T. A.:

Simple Mathematical Model for Recognition and Visualization of Atrial Enlargement Using the DECARTO Technique

Abstract:  For diagnostic recognition of the atrial enlargement with the use of a corrected orthogonal lead system, a simple mathematical model is proposed to provide visualization of the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of the heart atria. The atrial depolarization process is depicted in the form of a map on spherical surface enclosing the atria, with indication of the atrial wall size parameter on the same map. To obtain quantitative estimation for enlargement of each atrium, efficient integral parameters are used. This method incorporated into the DECARTO (dipole electrocardiotopography) technique is illustrated by cases with normal atria, biatrial enlargement, and one-sided atrial enlargement.

Keywords:  Dipole electrocardiotopography, atrial enlargement, ECG modelling


41 - 44

Szathmáry V., Tyšler M., Turzová M.:

Model Study of the Relationship between the Heart and Vectorcardiographic Vectors

Abstract:  Computer models of the ventricular activation and the inhomogeneous human torso were used to study the relationship between two dipolar representations of the heart activation: the heart vector and the measurable vectorcardiographic vector. Results demonstrated good correspondence between these two vectors except of relatively small time interval during the ventricular depolarization that may reflect their different sensitivities to the non-dipolar pattern of the cardiac electric field.

Keywords:  Model of ventricular activation, inhomogeneous torso model, heart vector, vectorcardiographic vector


45 - 48

Végsö B., Balázs G., Gaál B., Kozmann G.:

Electrode Reversal Detection in ECG Remote Monitoring

Abstract:  Most state-of-the-art cardiac telemonitoring systems lack the automated process of analyzing recorded data for electrode reversal. Although some methods exist to cover a very limited number of possible reversal cases like the detection of lead I reversal, these methods are totally unaware of any personalized a priori information on the ECG signals of the person monitorized and rely solely on lead signal parameters and properties – GRI and Marquette criteria inspection or training ANNs [1]. This paper will describe the concepts of the method developed to detect and recover incorrectly recorded ECG signals using previously recorded data. Some details on system operation and architecture will be also included. Results include probability of over 90% of detecting lead reversal.

Keywords:   ECG recording, electrode misplacement/reversal detection, signal recovery


No. 5



49 - 52

Damasceno J. C., Borges R M. H., Ordine A. P., Getrouw M. A., Fraga I. C. S., Borges P. P., Souza V.:

Evaluation of Ag/AgCl-electrode Standard Potential Uncertainty Used in Primary pH Measurements by Monte Carlo Simulation

Abstract:  The chemical quantity pH is a quality control parameter used in several industrial processes. Therefore, its proper determination and uncertainty estimation are extremely important to provide reliability and traceability to pH measurements. The uncertainty estimation procedures recommended in ISO-GUM are largely used by several laboratories and institutes. This work compares the ISO-GUM approach and the Monte Carlo simulation method for the Ag/AgCl electrode potential uncertainty (UEo) determination used in pH uncertainty estimation in a phosphate solution at 25oC. The Monte Carlo simulation showed very similar results in comparison to the ISO-GUM approach. It can be concluded that both methods are applicable for UEo determination and give reliable results.

Keywords:   Monte Carlo simulation, primary pH measurement, ISO-GUM, uncertainty estimation


53 - 56

Van der Heijden F., Regtien P. P. L .:

Wearable Navigation Assistance - a Tool for the Blind

Abstract:  This paper describes the system architecture for a navigation tool for visually impaired persons. The major parts are: a multi-sensory system (comprising stereo vision, acoustic range finding and movement sensors), a mapper, a warning system and a tactile human-machine interface. The sensory parts are described in more detail, and the first experimental results are presented.

Keywords:   Navigation tools, ultrasonic range finding, stereo vision, multimodal information system, probabilistic map building, particle filtering


57 - 61

Šimáček I., Martinická F., Jurdák P.:

Quantification of the Magnetic Dust Deposition in the Magnetopneumographic Diagnostic of the Human Respiratory Tract

Abstract:  With the help of the SQUID magnetometric system the non-invasive magnetopneumographic quantification measurements were performed. Using groups of samples, models and tested persons, the remanent magnetic induction Br and relaxation curves of the most important contaminating powdered ferri- and ferromagnetic materials (PFM) were measured. The influence of the affecting physiological processes in the organism and some other factors cause the change of the relaxation process with a decay of Br. By means of the several compensations the measured data were corrected directly in the computer program.

Keywords:    Magnetopneumography, powdered magnetic materials, contamination of the respiratory tract, relaxation process, quantification


No. 6



62 - 66

Bartusek K., Gescheidtova E.:

Mapping the Induction of Magnetic Field Around an Applicator for Dermato Magneto therapy, using the Magnetic Resonance Method

Abstract:  The paper deals with measuring magnetic induction by imaging techniques based on magnetic resonance (MR) and describes experimental results of mapping the magnetic induction of a dermatological applicator for magnetotherapy performed by MR imaging techniques. The results are compared with theoretical calculation and with measurement carried out with an ordinary magnetometer. The conclusions derived from the measurement will be used in the design of a new applicator with complex electronic control of magnetic field.

Keywords:  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, magnetotherapy, gradient echo, spin echo


67 - 78 Krishnaveni V.,  Jayaraman S.,  Manoj Kumar P. M., Shivakumar K.,  Ramadoss K.:

Comparison of Independent Component Analysis Algorithms for Removal of Ocular Artifacts from Electroencephalogram

Abstract:  The electroencephalogram (EEG) is useful for clinical diagnosis and in biomedical research. EEG recordings are distorted by electrooculogram (EOG) artifacts causing serious problem for EEG interpretation and analysis.  An often preferable method is to apply Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to multichannel EEG recordings and remove a wide variety of artifacts from EEG recordings by eliminating the contributions of artifactual sources onto the scalp sensors.  The estimated sources should be as independent as possible, for better removal of artifacts from EEG.  In this paper, the actual independence of the components obtained from various ICA algorithms like OGWE, MS-ICA, SHIBBS, Kernel-ICA, JADE and RADICAL are assessed and compared  by a recently introduced Mutual Information (MI) Estimator based on k-neighbor statistics without using the probability density functions. The results show that RADICAL algorithm performs best at separating the source signals from the observed (mixed) EEG signals and is recommended for.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, ocular artifacts, blind source separation, independent component analysis,  mutual information


79 - 81 Strolka I., Toffanin R., Guglielmi G., Frollo I.:

Image Registration in the T2* Measurements of the Calcaneus Used to Predict Osteoporotic Fractures

Abstract:   The conventional criterion for fracture risk assessment is the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by X-ray absorptiometry. Even if there is a strong association between bone strength and BMD, nowadays it is well accepted that this is not a sufficiently reliable predictor of fracture risk in osteoporotic patients. Therefore, there is a growing need for a better predictor of bone strength. Several studies have confirmed that the T2* relaxation time estimates based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show a strong correlation with bone strength. In this paper, an image-processing tool for the reduction of motion artifacts in the T2* measurements of the bone marrow of the calcaneus is described.

Keywords:  osteoporosis, magnetic resonance imaging, image registration