MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW                        Volume 4, Section 2               Main Page

PAPER SECTION 2                             Download and print the front cover  ->>   VOLUME 4, 2004

  Measurement in Biomedicine


     1 - 8

Ungureanu M., Bigan C., Strungaru R., Lazarescu V.:

Independent Component Analysis Applied in Biomedical Signal Processing

Abstract:  The EEG is composed of electrical potentials arising from several sources. Each source (including separate neural clusters, blink artifact, or pulse artifact) projects a unique topography onto the scalp-'scalp maps'. These maps are mixed according to the principle of linear superposition. Independent component analysis (ICA) attempts to reverse the superposition by separating the EEG into mutually independent scalp maps, or components so that the method used is the study is independent component analysis (ICA). The Polysomnogram (PSG), complex of more signals recorded over night for the patients with respiratory problems contains also redundant information that can be removed using the ICA.


 9 - 14

Melinte R., Dragoi G.S., Niculescu M., Melinte R.P., Dogaru R. C.:

3D Computer Modelling – A Way For Studying The Glenohumeral Joint Biomechanics

Abstract:  Our main goal was to develop a biomathematic and biomechanic model that could help us study the sequence of movements in the glenohumeral joint in a way that could explain their mysterious complexity. We determined the equations of the glenohumeral cartilaginous articular surfaces and based on this equation we demonstrated and we applied mathematical formulas for calculating the curvature rays of the humeral articular surface, the 3D co-ordinates of the centers of the curvature of the humeral head and the thickness of the humeral articular cartilage. There is an orderly distribution of the curvature radius of the cartilaginous articular surfaces of the glenohumeral joint, which corresponds to certain specific paths of glenohumeral joint movements that explains the fact that any glenohumeral movement takes place in more than one movement plane.


  15 - 19

Likothanassis S., Perdikuri K., Skarlas L., Tsakalidis A.:

Evolutionary Biomedical Signal Processing Techniques

Abstract:  Digital Signal Processing techniques constitute the basic scientific approach used in most of the current advances in medicine. In particular, the development of algorithms in order to extract, predict and model raw biomedical data series has revolutionized many routine, but data-intensive, areas of current medical practice. In this contribution, we present an evolutionary technique for modelling and analysing Non-linear Time Series (NLTS). The proposed methodology has been already used in two cases with great biomedical importance and we therefore explore its effectiveness on other biomedical signals.


 20 - 28

Wachter C., Gerisch H., Navé P. M. W., Staude G., Wolf W.

Synchronization of periodic movements with external events and interlimb coordination: phase entrainment or phase resetting?

Abstract:  The aim of this study is to investigate of the synchronization of periodic rhythmic movements with single discrete movements as reaction to external trigger signals. The underlying coordination principle derived from the experimental results is supposed to be either phase entrainment or phase reset. In phase entrainment, the response is more probable to occur during the phase, when the periodic rhythm is in the same direction as the discrete movement, but less probable, when directions are opposite. When the rhythm of the periodic movement is disturbed by the discrete movement, two types of phase reset can be obtained: type 1 resets provoked at weak perturbations show a small phase shift on the ongoing rhythm, whereas type 0 resets occur at strong perturbations and cause large phase shifts.


 29 - 40

Arif M., Ohtaki Y., Nagatomi R.., Inooka H.:

Estimation of the Effect of Cadence on Gait Stability in Young and Elderly People using Approximate Entropy Technique

Abstract: Walking stability of human beings varies with age and reduces in the elderly people. Lesser walking stability causes many falls in the elderly people. In this paper, we have investigated the walking stability of young and elderly subjects using approximate entropy, a non-linear time series analysis method. Our emphasis in this paper is to investigate the walking stability using a portable instrumentation that can be used in the daily life walking. The variability of the acceleration of the centre of gravity is analysed by using approximate entropy technique and is used as an index to assess the walking stability of young and elderly people. By using the proposed method, it is possible to assess the walking stability of the elderly subjects and it is observed that the walking stability of elderly subjects decreases in the lateral direction. Moreover it is also possible to suggest a walking speed to the elderly subjects that can improve their walking stability.


 41 - 50

Tarata M.T., Bloedel J.R.

An Original Approach (MTT_SYS) for Time/Space Measurements, Using The Matlab Data Acquisition Toolbox.

Abstract The paper presents an insight into addressing complex time/space measurements in biology and efficient implementations of such complex systems under Windows (Microsoft, USA) using the MATLAB (Mathworks Inc., USA) Data Acquisition Toolbox. The approach is illustrated with authors’ original system  (MTT_SYS) to flexibly implement complex experimental paradigms in Biomechanics, Physiology and Neuroscience. MTT_SYS gathers non-invasively 3D (position in space of joints) & physiological information from human or animal subjects, driven by external or physiological events. Comparing to other approaches, this implementation provides the quickest way to build, flexible, high performance, paradigm oriented complex systems.

51 - 58

Kolpakov F.F., Slavinsky S.S.

The sphygmography measuring converter “pressure – frequency” dynamic characteristics examination.

Abstract  Dynamic characteristics of a sphygmography measuring converter definition technique on the basis of the state-of-the-art analysis of dynamic characteristics definition modes are presented.  An apparatus for the transmitter dynamic characteristics definition is offered as well.


59 - 74

Šušmáková K.

Human Sleep and Sleep EEG

Abstract:   The review article summarizes the basic knowledge from the field of sleep research. The emphasis is on the exploration of the rules of polysomnographic recording and scoring sleep stages as well as on results and opinions about the nature of sleep EEG. History of sleep research, sleep physiology, functions of sleep and mostly used experiments are briefly mentioned. Relevant spectral methods and methods inspired by dynamical systems theory are listed.